Eugene Plawiuk (plawiuk) wrote,
Eugene Plawiuk
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Gnostic Heresy in Islam

Lebanon has a history of Anarchist gnosticism as well. The Druze are the historic anarchists in this area originally coming out of an Ishmali sect.
You knew I would get the heretics in the Middle East eventually.

Druze


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.




The religion developed out of Ismaili Islam, a philosophical movement based in the
Fatimid Caliphate, in the 10th century, a time of particular cultural wealth. The religion did not attempt to
reform mainstream Islam but aimed to create a whole new religious body influenced by Greek philosophy, Gnosticism and Christianity, among others. The main actors were Tariq al-Hakīm, also
known as al-Hakīm bi-Amr al-Lāh, the
Caliph who claimed to be God, and Hamza ibn-'Ali
ibn-Ahmad
, the main architect of the movement. It was Hamza who first publicly proclaimed that Hakīm was God.
Hakīm was opposed by orthodox Muslims for what was considered apostasy. He was
resented for his extreme violence, and religious minorities (such as Christians) were persecuted under him—in 1010, Hakīm destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Because the Druze considered Tariq al-Hakīm to be the incarnation of God, they were persecuted by orthodox Muslims, especially after Hakīm's death in 1021. The
Druze took up taqiyya ("dissimulation"), a practice whereby they conceal their true
beliefs and outwardly accept the religious beliefs of those amongst whom they live, even as they retained their true convictions
in secret. The Druze believe that Hakīm disappeared and will return in the end days.
The Druze have played major roles in the history of the Levant. They were mostly
scattered in Mount Lebanon, which was known as the Mountain of the
Druzes, and later the similarly-named Jabal al-Durūz (Mount of the
Druzes)
in Syria.</p>

The Druze also played a major role in the War of Lebanon
(1975–1990). They organized a militia (probably the strongest militia in the
Lebanon war) under the leadership of Walid Jumblatt, (son of Kamal Jumblatt), mostly as a response to aggressions conducted by the Christians of Mount Lebanon. They were based in the Mount Lebanon area (especially the
Chouf).




THE OLD MAN OF THE MOUNTAINS



Another Ishmali sect in this area centred around the Old Man of the Mountains, Hassan Ibn Saba
, the leader of the Asassins of Middle Ages, they were originally an Ishmali sect.







He actually existed and ruled over the moutain fortress of Alamut.







Sayyidna Hasan Bin Sabbah By Shaykh Muhammad

The Old Man of the Mountains

From A History of Secret Societies by Arkon Daraul (Citadel Press 1961/1989)
NOTE: in some texts the form "Hassan-i-Sabbah" is mentioned instead of Hasan-bin-Sabah used here.

NOTE2: "One little-nit-picky-tiny detail though, I am pretty certain (according to Crowley, and Michael Prawdin's 'History of the Mongol Empire') that the quote from Hassan bin Sabbah is

'Nothing is Forbidden, Everything is Permitted'
not
'Nothing is Real, Everything is Permitted'

it is a subtle difference, but so much is based upon subtlety." - Terezakis.

The Assassins of Alamût


The Assassins (or Hashisham ) were a Persian Ismai'ili sect created
by Hassan i Sabbah in 1090. Like many Order and Secret Societies
throughout the ages, the actual history and practices have been blended
or bastardized by folk-lore and myth. The history of Alamût is no
exception to this.


Hassan i Sabbah was an Isma' ili da'i of
Persian origin. It has been rumoured that he attended school at the
University of Nishapur with Omar Khayyam and was given a position at
the same court where Omar Khayyam was the Court Astrologer, but was
forced to leave over a scandal perpetrated by a jealous rival. He
travelled to Egypt in 1086 and became active with the Fatimid branch of
the Isma'ili, under the expected successor to the Fatamid Caliphate,
Nizar Hassan i Sabbah returned to Persia where he continued to work and
support the Fatimid branch of the Isma'ili. When Nizar was imprisoned
and supplanted by his younger brother, Hassan i Sabbah broke with the
Fatimids and seized the fortress of Alamût (The Eagle's Nest) in 1090.
Alamût is located on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea in the
Elburz Mountain range. Here he was able to establish a power base among
the outer tribes and mountain people far from the centers of
established political and economic power.


At least in the
outer, the religious teaching emanating from Alamût appeared to be a
derivation of the Isma'ili faith, a gnostic dualistic form Islam
similar to Manicheism. for the Isma'ili, the Imam, or religious head
was the personal representative of God in the physical world and
salvation was only obtainable through the Imam ( a Western analogy
would be if the Pope were also seen as the Messiah). For years the
Isma'ili Imam had been the Fatamid Caliphate, but with the split,
Hassan i Sabbah took the role of Imam upon himself.


The empire
that Hassan i Sabbah established was not a physical empire, but rather
a hidden political empire within the borders of other empires. And for
this reason it established and required an entirely new kind of warfare
and tactics. Hassan i Sabbah had complete control over his adepts who
were willing to sacrifice themselves for him.These adepts known as
Assassins, derived from Hashashin, consumer of Hashish, would
infiltrate Hassan i Sabbah's enemies' ranks, where they would often
rise to positions of prominence and trust, often posing as religious
teachers or dervishes. From this position it was easy for them to kill
their intended victim. The assassinations would usually be carried out
with a knife and the Assassin would not try and escape capture.
Instead, he would wait calmly prepared to die, having carried out his
objective. Sometimes an Assassin would be in the sevice of a Sultan for
years and years before being required to strike. This sort of political
assassination was new to most of the Kings and it was easier to give in
to the Old Man's demands, when a King could not be sure of even his
closest advisors or be sure when the dagger would come. The power to
assassinate an enemy was said to reach as far as India and Paris.


An
interesting glimpse into the inner ideology of the Assassins may be
seen in the works and teachings of Hassan, the grandson of Buzurg
Ummid, who held Alamût after the Old Man of the Mountain. Two years
after Hassan's accension to the the Imamate of Alamût, he assembled all
of the religious leaders of area that "to all jinn, Angels and Men",
that their salvation lay in following his commands and that the
religious law of Islam was abrogated. He then made two bows signifying
the premature end of Ramadan and celebrated by drinking and feasting
and holding a festival to mark the shattering of the sacred law. It is
also noted that written on the door of the library were the words "With
the aid of God, the ruler of the universe destroyed the fetters of the
law.


It is these and others stories from myth that have lead
modern writers and magicians, such as William S. Burroughs. Brion Gyson
and R. A. Wilson to spend consider interest in Alamût and attribute the
phrase "Nothing is True, Everything is Permitted" to the the Old Man of
the Mountain. Since the writings of Marco Polo, tales of the Assassins
and the Mythical Garden have been circulating and discussed. Most of
the Western myth surrounding Alamût comes from the Travels of Marco
Polo. Marco Polo's tales of Alamut and the Assassins are supposedly
taken from his travels in the early 1270s, but unfortunately, the
Assassins and their strongholds were destroyed by Hulagu Khan and his
Mongol raiders in 1256. What Marco Polo tells us is not his first hand
experience but rather his telling of tales that he picked up from
story-tellers along his journey.









</span>The Earliest of the Ibn Saba Assassins



Hasan had the last name ibn Saba which derives from the leader of the
early Islamic dissident Abdullah ibn Saba who assassinated the the
chief of Medina and took the city causing a split to occur between Shia and Sunnis.




Like the old man of the mountains there are those who
claim that Abdullah Ibn Saba, is a myth. He was supposedly originally a
Jew who converted to Islam and  Shia writers assert that it is difficult to prove that he ever existed. While Sunni Muslims assert
that: "Abdullah Ibn Saba, a Jew from Yemen, under the garb of a Muslim,
took his sojourn at Madeenah. He had all the trappings of an expert
plotter and the Jewish genius at intrigues, an attribute of his clan."



What this shows however is that the Muslims blame the Jews for having
fomented revolt and in splitting the Caliphate into the divisions of
Sunni and Shia. Islamic Anti-Semitism begins with this tale.



From: Historical
Background of the religion of Shiism


"Simply, when the Jews were
convinced they are unable to halt the fast growing and spreading of Christianity
by means of force, they planed to destroy it from within. This mission
was successfully carried out by Rabbi Paul. When Islam came, likewise,
the Jews again attempted to abort this new religion. Their endeavors took
many forms and shapes, from attempts to assassinate the Apostle of Allah
[saw] to waging wars that ended in deporting most of them from al-Madinah
or executing those who betrayed the truce. Similarly, they were convinced
that the best way to destroy Islam and the Muslims' unity was to resort
to the plot they used with Christianity. A Yemenite Jew by the name of
Abdullah bin Saba' , as Paul did, pretended to have embraced Islam
to plant secretly the seeds of this new cult which he successfully performed.
He arrived from Yemen to al-Madinah during the era of Khalif Uthman bin
'Affaan (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala anhu) and started to plan and cook the plot,
waiting for the proper opportunity which he found in Sayyidina Ali (Radhi
Allahu Ta'ala anhu)."



Tags: gnostic, gnosticism, heresy, islam
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